Destination Scenic Philippines

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Discovery-Guelos - Green Earth Awareness 2024

Nagsasa Cove - The Hidden Paradise of Zambales,Philippines

 23 April 2024

The Nagsasa Cove in San Antonio, Zambales, used to be rocky until the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in 1990’s, which chucked tons of volcanic ash in many parts of the region. Nagsasa Cove has similar features as Anawangin: a beach of ash that absorbs heat faster than the usual sand; a blanket of agoho trees, a type of casuarina tree, often mistaken for pine trees; the azure sea teeming with life and colour; and gently sloping hills framing the view.

The village was first called Pamalisaraoan and later as PAMISARAOAN. PAMISARAOAN was given the status of a barrio, as part of Pueblo Uguit (now Castillejos) in 1836. However, in the year 1846, when the barrio of Alasis or Aluciis, which then belonged to Cabangan, was made into a new pueblo, Barrio PAMISARAOAN was detached from Uguit and was subsequently attached to San Narciso. The town leader, Teniente Primero, in that period was Don Gregorio Bañaga, who governed from 1836 to 1849. He was succeeded by Don Vicente Lacuesta in 1849 (governing as Teniente Absoluto), when San Antonio was finally recognized and given the status of a pueblo on May 12, 1849 as a result of two petitions for separation from the town of San Narciso. The first was in 1848 and the second was on March 8, 1849. The latter petition was signed by 31 top leaders of the community headed by Tiniente Primero Don Vicente Lacuesta.

The last mayor Teniente Absoluto was Don Santiago Ladrillono. He was succeeded by Don Dimas Pascasio as the first gobernadorcillo in 1856. The prominent citizens selected their leaders every year thereafter. In 1891 to 1898, Don Pablo Corpus was the only Capitan Municipal selected after which Don Felix Magsaysay was appointed as the first Presidente Municipal and many more followed up to 1931 to 1945. San Antonio was the site of the US Naval Communications Station San Miguel, now the Naval Education and Training Command. Now a Second Class Municipality, and under the leadership of Hon. Edzel L. Lonzanida, MD, San Antonio is experiencing a significant rise in tourist arrivals. With the improvements in tourism-related infrastructure like road rehabilitation, construction of first-class health facilities and major renovation of the San Antonio Public market, and over-all beautification and promotion of the town, San Antonio is truly on its way to become the crown jewel of tourism in Zambales and Region III.

How to Get to Nagsasa Cove

How to get there by public transport. Take the bus (check bus station to Zambales) to Iba or Sta. Cruz, Zambales and get off at the San Antonio Public Market near the Municipal Hall. Alternatively, you can also travel by bus to Olongapo and another bus to San Antonio, and get off at the same market. Look for a tricycle transport to take you to Pundaquit and then rent a boat to Nagsasa Cove or also by trekking is another good option.

Suggested Travel Agency offering Nagsasa Cove Tour

McTrail Travel and Tours, linked below.

Historical Facts Surrounding Nagsasa Cove

Nagsasa Cove was once a rainforest inhabited by Aetas and rocky beaches. In the 1980s, the mountain slopes around Nagsasa Cove were covered with tropical rainforest and inhabited by Aetas since many years past. The coastline was mostly rocky, with shorter spots of beach all around. A few distance distance beyond the coastline was  of abundant coral reef, lushing with all kinds of marine life.

The area was once a practice area for US warplanes, decade ago. This densely forest mountains  were  utilized as an area for bombing exercise areas. The locals at that time were given enough warning not to leave their homes when the military exercise started, but few instances the those been working in the forest area where lesser time to get out, sometimes hit with bombing debris. Some famous military bases like Crow Valley range, the area was not exactly an official part of any US military reservation. Across the mountains there were other military bases like Clark Air Force Base to the northeast, and Subic Naval Station – base of the US Seventh Fleet base – to the southeast, apart from the US Navy communications station in San Miguel further up north, but still within San Antonio town, where the cove is used for military exercises.

The eruption of Pinatubo changes the face of Nagsasa Cove, 12 June 1991, Mount Pinatubo erupted and blew massive ashfalls covering the numerous towns of  Zambales-Tarlac-Pampanga-Bataan boundaries, including Nagsasa and the neighbouring coves of Anawangin, Talisayin, and Silanguin. The Aetas, who lived in smaller communities all around Zambales-Bataan mountains, severely affected  and were force to relocate dislocation due to the threatening lahar flow and there were casualties along the path and they were devastated as they consider the mountains a sacred place.

Lahar covered the coastline and created new face of beaches. Many months after the eruption in 1991, with frequent rain, eventually settling ashes and lahars were slowly eroded.  A form of ecosystem rose form the movement of dust and ashes washed away down to rivers and the sea, making new sight of beaches. It became a fresher and new land contours surrounding the new coastline.  

New way of life where in the past twenty years since the Pinatubo eruption, the new beach at the point of the Nagsasa cove slowly came to life,  new grown sea grass, a scattering of small shells, family of corals growing and populating the seabed, and bounty signs of growing marine life. Nagsasa highlands around the cove took some time the vegetation to populate.

Agojo trees that look like a pine tree calledcasuarina trees, The agojo  trees surrounding the areas were from the Casuarina family. Agojo is strikingly similar to pine with their needle-like leaves and it is a flowering tree and a hardwood, while pine is a conifer and softwood. Agojo and many other Casuarina species thrive around the seashore. They reproduce fast and now considered invasive species in some areas.

Wild Horse Creek “A river runs through it,” as many said, is more of a creek ending in shallow tidewater pools than a river, although further upstream are rapids and falls. Previously called Wild Horse Creek follow the  headwaters, and over the stretch  you’re able to discover that an alternative route by land between Nagsasa and the other side of the hilltops across the mountains via Cinco Picos, with the  Subic famous Bay at the other end.  

Philippines' First Hop-on Hop-off Bus

 Manila and Makati, December 2023 

The Philippines’ Department of Tourism (DOT) introduced the country's first-ever hop-on hop-off bus tours in Manila-Makati late last July 2023. The program looks to provide tourists the “convenience and flexibility on when and how they will tour a destination through a seamless and contactless travel system with strategic hubs in Metro Manila with the option to avail of guided tours in selected destinations. This tour option is a strategic tourism product of major urban cities such as New York, London, Madrid and Singapore.

The Philippines Hop-On Hop-Off (HOHO) tour in Makati was fully implemented that tourists can take the bus in designated stops within the city, following the suggested itineraries curated by the DOT-NCR team. It cost around P1,000 per person and tourists will have an option to avail private and guided tours. The department looks to bring the project to other key destinations around the country and DOT noted that preparations are being done for the launch of the Philippines HOHO project in Manila next.

The Philippines Hop-On Hop-Off (HOHO), travel by the Hubs Project is a  special tourism recovery program for your ticket to explore the vibrant heart of Metro Manila in a new and exciting way. HOHO offers an easy and contactless travel system within select strategic hubs of the city, all while putting you in the driver's seat of your own adventure with a modern transport bus system and a handy mobile transport app. With HOHO, you'll have the freedom to explore the bustling streets of Makati, from Glorietta 2 to Ayala Triangle, or discover the historical gems of Manila, including Rizal Park in Luneta, Intramuros, and Binondo. The starting points are convenient too; in Makati, it's Glorietta 2 along Palm Drive, and in Manila, you can hop on at the Pedro Gil entrance of Robinsons Manila

Kinaiyahan Forest Park, An Eco-Friendly Escapade in Bohol, Philippines

 Bilar, Bohol, Philippines 03 December 2023 

'Kinaiyahan’ meaning the natural environment, or anything associated with existence by nature and controlled by nature. This is where the Kinaiyahan Forest Park concept started on a 17-hectare forested area in barangay Zamora, Bilar town.

Bilar, officially the Municipality of Bilar, is a 4th class municipality in the province of Bohol, Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 18,512 people. The town of Bilar, Bohol celebrates its fiesta on May 15, to honour the town patron Saint Isidore the Farmer. Bilar is an interior town northeast of Loboc. This town used to occupy a big area and included what are now known as municipalities of Sevilla, Batuan and Carmen. The term “bilar” is a native word from the infinitive “nagbilad” literally means "exposed under the sun".

Dining and around Kinaiyahan corners

Kinaiyahan Forest Park has started to plant 5,000 bamboos during the observance of the World Bamboo Day way back in 2021. The park then projected to have 20,000 bamboos planted within the year 2021 and in 2023, it become a picturesque of wide varieties of bamboo in the massive space of the nature park and now a natural attraction in Bilar, Bohol surrounded by gilded greenery, tall trees, and bamboo structures all around the area. The Kinaiyahan Forest Park is a sanctuary for nature lovers and adventure seekers, recommending a unique and immersive experience in these rare, natural attractions. It is a haven for those in search of tranquility and a deep, relaxing connection with nature and the laid-back feel of Bohol

Around Kinaiyahan 

The Kinaiyahan Forest Park is ideal for relaxation and winding down amongst the sense of nature and for breaking away from a busy and pressured city lifestyle or just mainly time-off of everyday life. The park is showcasing picture-perfect bamboo arches, a enormous space with tables and comfortable chairs to relax, an indoor treehouse, bamboo swings under the cooling-shades of trees, and an impressive triangular structure that is perfect for a wide-angled photo. There is a modest like lake also at Kinaiyahan Forest Park where bamboo chairs are purposefully placed to admire all the attractions of nature.  It is an eco-friendly theme park and sustainable structures harmonizing the innate beauty of the heart of the Philippine islands.

Malangaan Marble Cave

San Rafael, Bulacan, Philippines

 Bulacan, Philippines 02 December 2023 

Malangaan Marble Cave in the Philippines is situated on the Municipality of San Rafael province of Bulacan bounded by two provinces, Quezon and Pampanga. San Rafael is predominantly an agricultural town, and its major crop is rice which is the main source of people’s income, along with other produce of corn, root crops, fruits (mostly mangoes) and vegetables.  Livestock and poultry production are the other agricultural source in the municipality. 

San Rafael aimed for a wider development including tourism and this town has the high potential as tourist destination.  The Malangaan Caves in the village of Tukod, the San Rafael Church, the San Rafael Retreat Farm and the Eight Waves Water Park resort are among sites that will surely attract more national and international visitors.

San Rafael was established as a pueblo in 1750. The San Juan de Dios Church still stands as the silent witness of the bloody battles that the Filipino insurgents fought during the Philippine Revolution of 1896. This church was used as military barracks for almost three days, after the insurgents had destroyed all papers and documents they found in the convents. When the Spanish Cazadores learned of these rebellious activities, they entered the church and fought the insurgents. The combatants fought heavily inside the church to a point that blood was spilled all over the church floor. The patio in front of the church was littered by dead bodies of Filipino insurgents. The gobernadorcillo ordered people to dig a common grave near the church for the bodies of the insurgents

Malangaan Cave, also known as Marble Cave, is just a two hour drive from Manila and accessible by both public and private transportation towards  Pulo town and from Pulo it will roughly  take about 10 mins drive to Tukod, where the Malangaan Cave is located. The Malangaan Cave and River system located in village of  Tukod, San Rafael shares border with neighboring towns of San Ildefonso and Doña Remedios Trinidad or simply known as DRT. Then a short trek heading to  the cave, the amazing rock formation all around are mesmerising. During summer time or dry season the area is much like a mini  US Grand Canyon.

Tinipak River - The Hidden Gem of Mount Daraitan, Tanay, Rizal, Philippines

 Rizal Province, Philippines 22 November 2023 

Mount Daraitan is a mountain range located along the borders of Tanay, Rizal and General Nakar, Quezon Province, Philippines.  Daraitan came from two words - dara, a local term for limestone and aeta, a Filipino term usually used to describe native people of dark skin. Mount Daraitan is a part of the vast ancestral land of the Dumagat tribe and is protected by military as history of insurgencies and armed presence has been reported to this place. However, in general, Daraitan is considered to be safe for mountain trekkers and visitors. At the foot of Sierra Madre Mountain in village Daraitan, Tanay, Rizal runs the Tinipak River featuring a sporadic formation of limestones and crystal clear river. Tinipak or Agos River, is a river that flows from Tanay, Rizal to General Nakar, Quezon Province and found throughout the Sierra Madre mountain ranges. The dramatic marble rock formations, an in-cave natural swimming pool and its proximity to Metro Manila, make this gem a perfect getaway for visitors locally and  internationally. The river is popular to mountaineers since this is the main attraction after summiting Mount Daraitan and awarded as the cleanest inland body of water in the region.

The word “Tinipak” which gives the name to the river, literally means “to cleave” or “to split”, which appropriately captures the imposing limestone structures that border the rivers’ bank. Tinipak River’s amazing beauty makes for ideal photographic backdrop, making a popular destination for visitors seeking to record unforgettable moments. Tinipak River is the perfect  getaway from the bustle and hustle of the city because of its serene surroundings. The limestone features almost the entire stretch of Tinipak River banks is a 

sedimentary rock composed principally of calcium carbonate (calcite) or the double carbonate of calcium and magnesium (dolomite). It is usually composed of tiny fossils, shell fragments and other fossilized debris. These fossils are frequently visible to the unaided eye on close examination of the stone surface, however this is not the case for  Tinipak River which purely sedimentary rock. Some varieties of limestone have an extremely fine grain and overtime the limestone deposits of Tinipak River  most likely underwent a metamorphism during major geological events resulting in a recrystallizing as marble.

As the Philippines is one of the most vulnerable countries in the world to climate change and with the increased intensity of typhoons and rainfall, many conservationist joined forces to conserve and protect the Kaliwa Watershed Forest Reserve, the home to the indigenous Dumagat-Remontado communities, who have been stewards of their ancestral domain  within the Sierra Madre since time immemorial. The Tinipak River spring is a sacred site in Barangay (Village) Daraitan, within the Dumagat-Remontado ancestral domain and declared an indigenous community conserved area. Daraitan and Tinipak River provides important economic activities to local communities, from tourism, to non-timber forest products for livelihood. It is an ecologically important water system that enhances climate resilience. It provides key ecosystem services to downstream areas, playing an integral role in regulating water flow to the National Capital Region or Greater Manila where forests act as natural water filters.

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Sierra Madre - The Magnificent Frontier of the Philippines

Philippines, 08 October 2023

In the north, the range begins in the province of Cagayan and ends in the south in the province of Quezon. In the province of Nueva Vizcaya, the Caraballo Mountains sits between Sierra Madre and Cordillera Central. The mountain range serves as a typhoon barrier, weakening incoming typhoons from the Pacific Ocean before reaching the central mainland. The range's highest point is still unsure, and several peaks are recognised as the highest. Mount Anacuao in Aurora province stands at 6,069 feet (1,850 m), while Mount Cetaceo in Cagayan is of similar altitude. However, an expedition in September and October 2012 to Mount Guiwan (Nueva Vizcaya) preliminarily measured an altitude of 6,283 feet (1,915 m) on the summit.

There are many mountain peaks along the range by elevation approximately measuring from highest which is Mount Bintuod at 6,339 ft (1,932 m) to the lowest which is Mount Malauban at 1,024 ft (312 m). Numerous rivers running within the  mountain range from the longest, the Cagayan river at 518 km (322 miles) and the shortest is Kaliwa river at 518 km (322 miles). The Sierra Madre has 9 waterfalls of various stretch and wide. The mountains in Gabaldon and the mountains in Isabela as viewed from Barangay Diddadungan in the town of Palanan Northern portion of the range are two ecoregions cover the Sierra Madre. The Luzon rain forests cover the lower slopes of the range, and characterized by dipterocarp trees, or Dipterocarpaceae is a family of 16 genera and about 695 known species of mainly tropical lowland rainforest trees. The Luzon montane rain forests cover the portions of the range above 1000 meters elevation, and are characterized by laurel forests of oak and laurel trees. And there is one active volcano, the Caqua volcano in Cagayan province and last erupted in 1907.

The Philippines Sierra Madre is the longest mountain range in the country, traversing over 540 kilometers (340 mi) stretching from the province of Cagayan down to the province of Quezon, forming a north–south direction on the eastern portion of Luzon, the largest island of the archipelago. It is bounded by the Pacific Ocean to the east, Cagayan Valley to the northwest, Central Luzon to the midwest, and Calabarzon to the southwest. Some communities east of the mountain range, along the coast, are less developed and extremely remote that they could only be accessed either by air or sea. It is the Philippines largest protected area, the Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park, located at the northern part of the range in the province of Isabela. The park is included in the UNESCO tentative list for World Heritage List inscription. Environmentalists, scholars, and scientists have been urging the government to include the other parks within the Sierra Madre mountains for a UNESCO site that would include the entire mountain range from Cagayan to Quezon.

Sierra Madre is home to Indigenous Dumagat-Remontado groups, are the Aeta or Agta, or Dumagat, a collective terms for several indigenous Filipino peoples who live in various parts of the island of Luzon communities who have ancestral domain claims covering parts of the mountain range. Aeta communities were historically nomadic hunter-gatherers, typically consisting of approximately 1 to 5 families per mobile group. Groups under the "Aeta" umbrella term are normally referred to after their geographic locations or their common languages.

The Sierra Madre mountain range is rich in genetic, species, and habitat diversity, supplying food, water, and shelter to millions of people. The mountain range holds multiple watersheds and some of the Philippines' oldest forests. These forests are some of the country's largest remaining forest blocks, including an old-growth dipterocarp forest, montane forests, and extensive lowland forests.  Sierra Madre's forests and watersheds are home to some of the country's richest wildlife communities of more than 291 species of birds and 25 endemic mammals may be found within the Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park alone.


  • Coursey, Oscar William (1903). History and Geography of the Philippine Islands. Educator School Supply Company.

  • Bordadora, Norman (November 12, 2006). "Sierra Madre blocks 'Queenie' punch". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on December 25, 2014. Retrieved December 25, 2014

  • Noval-Morales, Daisy Y. "The Remontados of the Sierra Madre Mountains". National Commission for Culture and the Arts. Retrieved April 10, 2021.

  • Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park and outlying areas inclusive of the buffer zone". UNESCO World Heritage Centre.

  • "Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park". Archived

Sierra Madre The Backbone Of Phils

Las Casas Filipinas de Acuzar- A Colonial Historical Resort

Bagac, Bataan, Philippines

For more details about Las Casas Filipinas de Acuzar, tap the linked image above.

Las Casas Filipinas de Acuzar  is a beach resort, hotel, convention centre and heritage destination located in Bagac, Bataan, Philippines. Jose Acuzar, the owner of New San Jose Builders, Inc., started to rebuild Spanish colonial-era mansions in Bagac in 2003. He was born in June 19, 1955, a Filipino business executive who is the founder of New San Jose Builders. He also serves as the Secretary of the Department of Human Settlements and Urban Development from July 2022 until term completed. In March 2010, the area was opened to the public as the Las Casas Filipinas de Acuzar. It was placed under the management of Genesis Hotels and Resorts Corporation.  

The main attraction of the Las Casas Filipinas de Acuzar is the different heritage houses, which were shifted from outside Bagac, Bataan. The houses were disassembled from their original location and reconstructed inside the location of the Las Casas Filipinas. This method  called heritage conservation, is an attempt that seeks to preserve, conserve and protect buildings, objects, landscapes or other artifacts of historical significance. It is a philosophical concept that became popular in the twentieth century, which maintains that cities as products of centuries' development should be obligated to protect their patrimonial legacy. The term refers specifically to the preservation of the built environment, and not to preservation of, for example, primeval forests or wilderness has been argued among conservationists since they believed that their original communities could have benefitted from the structures had they been restored on site. The heritage park's advocate Gerry Acuzar claimed that he went with the method in order to save the structures from decay and neglect.  The heritage park was acclaimed by the Department of Tourism in 2021 under Secretary Bernadette Romulo-Puyat for its preservation efforts.

The houses included in the Las Casas Filipinas were evaluated for their historical, cultural and architectural merit.  Most structures dates back to the Spanish colonial era, but some buildings were built later such as the Casa Lubao which was built in 1920 during the American era.  The heritage park also include a torogan, literally a 'resting place' or 'sleeping place',  is a traditional ancestral house built by the Maranao people of Lanao, Mindanao, Philippines for the nobility. A torogan was a symbol of high social status, such a residence was once a home to a sultan or datu in the Maranao community. Nowadays, concrete houses are found all over Maranao communities, but there remain torogans a hundred years old.  Maranao royal family house from Lanao in Mindanao is a predominantly Muslim Filipino ethnic group native to the region around Lanao Lake in the island of Mindanao. They are known for their artwork, weaving, wood, plastic and metal crafts and epic literature.  The Darangen, are ethnically and culturally closely related to the Iranun, and Maguindanao, all three groups being represented as speaking Danao languages and giving name to the island of Mindanao. They are grouped with other Moro people due to their shared religion.

Among the notable houses shifted to the heritage park are - Casa Bizantina, Casa Hidalgo, Casa Jaen I and Casa Unisan.    Casa Bizantina, is a heritage house museum originally located at San Nicolas, Manila. It was transferred and reconstructed in 2009.  It was designed by a Catalan architect Joan Josep Jose Hervas y Arizmendi, in 1890. It is the only existing building designed by the Architect Arizmendi in the Philippines. In addition to that, it was cited by Tribune magazine in 1939 despite its neglected state.

Casa Hidalgo is a heritage house originally located in Quiapo, Manila, owned by Rafael Enriquez, a Spanish peninsular and painter (1850–1937). The house was built in 1867, one of the first projects of Architect Felix Roxas y Arroyo. Some of his notable works were Paterno House and Zamora House in Quiapo, Manila and the 1867 Santo Domingo Church in Intramuros, Manila. However, a carving on king post, stating "1807", indicates that the house was built before Rafael Enriquez occupied the house. This was discovered in 2006,  wherein the house was dismantled and relocated at Las Casas Filipinas de Acuzar. 

Casa Jaen I is a heritage house museum originally located at Jaen, Nueva Ecija built during the 1900s. Being the second house of the Esquivel family at Jaen, Nueva Ecija, it served as the venue for the homecoming of his son, Emmanuel Frias Esquivel, who studied in the United States. Their first house, which is also located at the same municipality, was built in 1890.  It won a House Beautiful Award in 1917 by the Sunday Tribune. Other houses that have won the award were the El Nido, or Eugene Arthur Perkins residence in 1927 and La Casona, or Jacobo Zobel Mansion in 1928 , all designed by Andres Luna de San Pedro.

Casa Unisan is a heritage house museum originally located in town of Kalilayan in Tayabas province, which Unisan now  is Quezon at present. It was built in 1839 by Don Antonio Maxino. The house was claimed to be the first bahay-na-bato of the municipality. In 2007, the half-ruined house was sold to Jose L. Acuzar by a remaining family member. Unfortunately, the rest of the Maxinos were massacred by bandits, or tulisan.

Las Casas Filipinas de Acuzar also accommodates a small church known as the Sanctuario de San Jose, other features includes the Napiya Spa, a swimming pool. The Tulay ni Lola Basyang is a bridge that crosses the Umagol River and is a replica of the old Puente de España in Manila. The Puente de España, or the Bridge of Spain, was a bridge that spanned the Pasig River in the Philippines, connecting the areas of Binondo and Ermita, Manila on Calle Nueva, now E.T. Yuchengco St., within central Manila. The span was the oldest established in the country before it was damaged by flood in 1914. The bridge was replaced by the Jones Bridge that was started in 1916 and completed in 1921, located one block downriver from Puente de España on Calle Rosario, now Quintin Paredes St.


Las Casas Filipinas - a New San Jose Builders project". Las Casas Filipinas de Acuzar. Retrieved 21 January 2013.

Orejas, Tonette (29 April 2012). "Where memories, heritage line the streets". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 7 March 2021.

"Las Casas Filipinas de Acuzar reopens – The Manila Times". Manila Times. 16 June 2020. Retrieved 7 March 2021..

Quismorio, Ellson (31 January 2021). "DoT chief cites Las Casas' way of preserving local historical sites". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved 7 March 2021.

"Tales of love, lust, and murder at Las Casas Filipinas". GMA News Online. 4 January 2014. Retrieved 7 March 2021.

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Apo Reef Natural Park, Philippines

Sablayan, Occidental Mindoro, Philippines

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Philippine’s Apo Reef is the world’s second-largest reef streaming with marine rich life and one of the country’s scuba diving paradise. This coral isle complex is considered the largest of its kind in Asia. The reef is divided by a narrow lagoon surrounded by a century-old mangrove forest and inhabited by some 285 species of marine species, including sharks, stingrays, and mantas and school of jack and snappers, tropical and crevice-dwelling moray, blemish and gobi and 500 coral species. The Park has three bird-populated islands comprises of the Apo Island, Apo Menor (Binangaan) and Cayos del Bajo Tinangkapang. The main geographical features of Apo Reef is submerged and the largest is Apo Island (22.0) hectares which harbours mangroves and shoreline vegetations, whereas, the Apo Menor(Binangaan) is rocky Iimestone island with relatively few vegetation and Cayos del Bajo(Tinangkapang) around 200-300 sq.m. is a coralline rock formation with no vegetation.

The thousands of islands in the Philippines

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Destination: Palawan, Philippines

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Destination: Negros Oriental, Philippines

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Destination: Ilocos Norte, Philippines

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Discovery-Guelos - Green Earth Awareness 2024